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Jump ’N’ Run About This Game VideoRooftop Escape POV
Levels and environments tend to feature uneven terrain and suspended platforms of varying height that requires use of the player character 's abilities in order to traverse.
Other acrobatic maneuvers often factor into the gameplay as well, such as climbing, swinging from objects such as vines or grappling hooks, jumping off of walls, air dashing, gliding through the air, being shot from cannons or bouncing from springboards or trampolines.
These mechanics, even in the context of other genres, are commonly called platforming. The most common unifying element of games of this genre is the ability to jump.
Games where jumping is automated completely, such as 3D games in The Legend of Zelda series, fall outside of the genre. While commonly associated with console gaming , there have been many important platform games released to video arcades , as well as for handheld game consoles and home computers.
At one point, platform games were the most popular genre of video game. At the peak of their popularity, it is estimated that between one-quarter and one-third of console games were platformers,  but these have since been supplanted by first-person shooters.
Since , a variety of endless running platformers for mobile devices have brought renewed popularity to the genre. As the name implies, a platform game requires the player to maneuver their character across platforms to reach a goal.
These games typically are either played from the side view using 2D movement or in 3D with the camera either in a first-person or third-person perspective.
The most common movement options in the genre are walking, running, jumping, attacking, and climbing. Jumping can be categorized as either "committed" or "variable"; wherein the trajectory of a committed jump cannot be changed mid-air, that of a variable jump can.
Depending on the game, falling from considerable heights may cause fall damage, possibly leading to death. Many platform games also have seemingly bottomless pits or other features within the game world that kill a character immediately were they to fall into them.
Beyond these elements, the components of a platform game can vary greatly, including various additional movement options, combat, or other features.
The term platform game came about some years after the genre emerged following the release of the first established title in the genre, Donkey Kong , in Platform games originated in the late s - early s.
Most, but not all, early examples of platform games were confined to a static playing field, generally viewed in profile, and were based on climbing mechanics between platforms rather than jumping.
Space Panic , a arcade release by Universal , is sometimes credited as being the first platform game,  though the distinction is contentious.
While the player has the ability to fall, there is no ability to jump, so the game does not satisfy most modern definitions of the genre.
However, it clearly influenced the genre, with gameplay centered on climbing ladders between different floors, a common element in many early platform games.
A difficult game to learn, Space Panic remained obscure as an arcade game, but the unauthorized clone Apple Panic was a hit for home computers.
Another precursor to the genre from was Nichibutsu 's Crazy Climber , which has the player scaling vertically-scrolling skyscrapers.
Donkey Kong , an arcade game created by Nintendo and released in July , was the first game to allow players to jump over obstacles and across gaps, making it the first true platformer.
Donkey Kong was ported to many consoles and computers at the time, notably as the system-selling pack-in game for ColecoVision ,  and also a handheld version from Coleco in This title laid the groundwork for other two-player cooperative platformers such as Fairyland Story and Bubble Bobble.
Beginning in , transitional games emerged that did not use scrolling graphics, but had levels that span several connected screens.
David Crane's Pitfall! Smurf: Rescue in Gargamel's Castle was released on the ColecoVision that same year, adding uneven terrain and scrolling pans between static screens.
Manic Miner and its sequel Jet Set Willy continued this style of multi-screen levels on home computers.
The first platform game to use scrolling graphics came years before the genre became a trend. As part of a nascent genre, its development was not strongly influenced by existing conventions, nor was it said to be a major influence on games immediately after it.
Jump Bug offered a glimpse of what was to come, with uneven, independently suspended platforms and levels that scroll both horizontally and vertically.
The Apple II game Track Attack includes a scrolling platform level where the character runs and leaps along top of a moving train.
Only a few home systems of the early s had hardware support for smooth background scrolling—most notably the Atari 8-bit family.
Nevertheless, B. The same year, a scrolling platform game appeared on the Commodore 64 and Atari 8-bit computers called Snokie.
Based on the Saturday morning cartoon rather than the maze game, Namco's Pac-Land was a bidirectional, horizontally-scrolling, arcade platformer with walking, running, jumping, springboards, power-ups , and a series of unique levels.
Nintendo's platform game Super Mario Bros. Its success as a pack-in led many companies to see platform games as vital to their success, and contributed greatly to popularizing the genre during the 8-bit console generation.
Sega attempted to emulate this success with their Alex Kidd series, which began in on the Master System with Alex Kidd in Miracle World , a platformer that featured horizontal and vertical scrolling levels, the ability to punch enemies and obstacles, and shops where the player could buy power-ups and vehicles.
The environments are varied, including mountains, caves, oceans, forests, and underwater segments. The original Wonder Boy in was inspired more by Pac-Land than Super Mario Bros , and featured skateboarding segments that gave the game a greater sense of speed than other platformers at the time,  while its sequel, Wonder Boy in Monster Land , took the series in a new direction by combining action-adventure and action role-playing elements with traditional platforming.
Scrolling platformers went portable in the late s with games such as Super Mario Land , and the genre continued to maintain its popularity, with many titles released for the handheld Game Boy and Game Gear systems.
Because of their small size, technical constraints, and blurring associated with the LCD technology, fast-paced action-based platformers were more difficult to develop for these handheld systems.
Because of this, many early handheld platformers leaned towards slower-paced play styles and a greater emphasis on puzzles.
One of the first platform games to scroll in all four directions freely and follow the on-screen character's movement is in a vector game called Major Havoc , which comprises a number of mini-games, including a simple platformer, a shoot 'em up sequence, a landing sequence, and a Breakout clone.
In , Enix released an open world platform-adventure game, Brain Breaker. Another platform-adventure released that year, Pony Canyon 's Super Pitfall , was critically panned for its vagueness and weak game design.
That same year Jaleco released Esper Boukentai , a platform-action sequel to Psychic 5 that scrolled in all directions and allowed the player character to make huge multistory jumps, which were necessary to navigate the giant, vertically oriented levels.
In , Capcom 's Mega Man introduced non-linear level progression where the player is able to choose the order in which they complete levels.
This was a stark contrast to both linear games like Super Mario Bros. GamesRadar credits the "level select" feature of Mega Man as the basis for the non-linear mission structure found in most open-world, multi-mission, sidequest -heavy games.
The advent of bit home consoles marked an evolutionary step for the genre. By the time the Genesis and Super NES launched, platform games were the most popular genre in home console gaming and were seen as vital for winning the console war.
There was a particular emphasis on having a flagship platform title exclusive to a format, featuring a mascot character.
The title was only modestly successful, and Sega realized it needed a stronger mascot to move Genesis units.
That same year, Capcom released the platformer Strider , which scrolled in multiple directions and allowed the player to summon artificial intelligence AI partners, such as a droid, tiger, and hawk, to help fight enemies.
In order to fend off the new competition, Sega released Sonic the Hedgehog. Sonic featured large stages that scrolled effortlessly in all directions, as well as all manner of uneven terrain, curved hills, and a complex physics system that allowed players to rush through its levels with well-placed jumps and rolls.
Lastly, there was the game's eponymous main character. Whereas prior platforming mascots tended to be either middle-aged men or young children, Sega decided to characterize Sonic as a teenager, with a rebellious personality in order to appeal to older gamers,  and super speed to help show off the Genesis' hardware capabilities.
The game proved to be a massive hit, was a successful pack-in with new systems, and cemented the view that platform games would make or break a console.
The Sonic character was seen as a new model for mascots in the early s, particularly for his perceived attitude, which characterized him as a rebel.
This attitude soon became the status quo, as companies attempted to duplicate Sonic's success with their own brightly colored anthropomorphisms.
These mascots, which included Gex , Mr. Although there had long been important platform games on home computers, a second generation of platform games for computers appeared alongside the new wave of consoles.
In the late s and early s, the Amiga was known as a stronger gaming platform than IBM PC compatibles , thanks to its more powerful stock video hardware and sound hardware.
Games like Shadow of the Beast and Turrican showed that computer platform games could rival the graphics and sound of their console contemporaries.
Prince of Persia , originally released for the Apple II in , long after that system's heyday, featured an unprecedented level of animation.
The abundance of platformers for bit consoles continued late into the generation, with successful games such as Vectorman , Donkey Kong Country 2: Diddy's Kong Quest , and Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island , but the release of new hardware caused players' attention to shift away from traditional 2D genres.
The 2D Rayman was a big success on bit consoles. Castlevania: Symphony of the Night revitalized its series and established a new foundation for later Castlevania games.
Oddworld and Heart of Darkness kept the subgenre born from Prince of Persia alive. The difficulties of adapting platform gameplay to three dimensions led some developers to compromise by pairing the visual flash of 3D with traditional 2D side scrolling gameplay.
These games are often referred to as 2. The game featured levels and boss characters rendered in 3D, but retained 2D gameplay and used pre-rendered 2D sprites for regular characters, similar to Donkey Kong Country.
Its sequel improved upon its design, featuring some 3D effects such as hopping between the foreground and background, and the camera panning and curving around corners.
Meanwhile, Pandemonium and Klonoa brought the 2. In a break from the past, the Nintendo 64 had the fewest side scrolling platformers with only four; Yoshi's Story , Kirby The Crystal Shards , Goemon's Great Adventure , and Mischief Makers —and most met with a tepid response from critics at the time.
The term 3D platformer usually refers to games that feature gameplay in three dimensions and polygonal 3D graphics. Games that have 3D gameplay but 2D graphics are usually included under the umbrella of isometric platformers , while those that have 3D graphics but gameplay on a 2D plane are called 2.
The first attempts to bring platform games into 3D used 2D graphics and had an isometric perspective.
These games are nearly as old as the genre itself, one of the earliest examples being Sega's Congo Bongo in The first platformers to simulate a 3D perspective and moving camera emerged in the early-mids.
An early example of this was Konami 's platform game Antarctic Adventure ,  where the player controls a penguin in a forward-scrolling third-person perspective while having to jump over pits and obstacles.
It was notable for being one of the first stereoscopic 3-D games. It allowed players to move in all directions, but it did not allow movement along more than one axis at once; the player could move orthogonally but not diagonally.
Its characters were pre-rendered sprites, much like the earlier Clockwork Knight. The game played very similarly to 2D platformers, but it was considered a true 3D title, and let players walk up walls and on ceilings.
On the run and jump switch, the main question your players are going to have is some variation of this…. There is no perfect time.
Start by encouraging your players to jump switch when the point guard dribbles with their head down towards the middle of the floor. One of the most important aspects of a full-court press is knowing when to fall back into the half-court defense.
After an unsuccessful sideline trap or if the opponent is able to break your press, players must immediately sprint back and protect the paint first and then get into the half-court defense.
If the on-ball defender and a help defender are working hard to set a trap on the sideline, the other players stay ready to get in the passing lanes and get a steal or deflection.
Occasionally the opponent will break your press. Any player that slowly jogs back after the press is broken should be sat on the bench immediately.
To be successful with the run and jump defense, your team needs to rebound the basketball. One of the benefits we talked about at the beginning of the article is that this defense increases the tempo of the game and encourages the opposition to take quick shots.
If they have the opportunity, your players should make contact with their player before pursuing the rebound. Your team can also choose to full-deny on the inbounds pass.
As usual, the closest player to the ring after a score puts immediate pressure on the inbounds pass. If your players are unable to get a steal on the inbounds pass or cause a 5-second violation, they simply establish the normal Run and Jump positioning.
In the main section of this guide, I only talk about trapping on the sideline from behind the offensive player with the first help defender.
This will usually be the second help defender. Instead of trapping from the blindside with the first help defender x4 , the second help defender x2 sees the point guard speed dribbling down the sideline and decides to slide over to cut them off and set a trap with the on-ball defender.
When this happens, x4 must drop back and get into position to intercept any pass that is made to 04 or The defender can see the middle trap coming.
If the middle defender slides over, the first help defender has to retreat before getting into a position where they can intercept a pass to either of the two top offensive players.
The simpler the better. This creates a difficult double team for the offensive player to break free from since the defensive guard is playing behind and stopping the pass over the top.
This encourages the inbounder to make the pass to the less-skilled player which is exactly what the defense wants to happen. The second strategy is to immediately send a trap at the star guard after they receive the inbounds pass.
This allows the second trapping defender to close out and set the trap in a good position after only a few short steps. The goal of this is to get the star guard to pass the basketball out of the trap.
You can use this trap at any player at any time as a great change-up to keep the opponent unsure about what your team is going to do.
This means that the offensive team will move all offensive players into the front court except the player dribbling the basketball up the court and the player passing the basketball in.
The thought-process behind this tactic is that by clearing out there will be no help defenders to jump switch or to trail the dribbler and trap on the sideline.
If the opposition inbound the basketball to their primary dribbler, you can immediately send a double team at them using the inbounds defender to get the ball out of their hands.
This will force them to pass the basketball to a player who is usually not accustomed to bringing the basketball down the floor.
If they see a clear floor ahead of them and take off in a speed dribble, this can be another great opportunity to push the basketball to the sideline and set a blind-side trap.
Even if the inbounder sprints off to the opposite end of the court you can still choose to leave a help defender in the front court. If the dribbler chooses to dribble up the sideline, the help defender trails and sets a blind-side trap as usual.
If they dribble towards the middle of the floor, the help defender can close out with high hands and force the dribbler to make a tough pass or pick up the basketball.
The easiest way for the coaches and players to distinguish between the different variations is to use colors to identify which type of press to use.
Players will still use the jump switch if the point guard dribbles towards the middle of the court, but the help defenders do not leave their opponent to trap.
This variation can be useful for young players still learning the run and jump defense to get them experience using the jump switch without the complexity of trapping and rotations.
It can also be effective for teams that have been trapping on the sidelines and now want to give their opponent a different look. It is a pure plattformer.
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